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3 Challenges in High-Pressure Die-Casting

by Nice Rapid | Apr 19,2021 | Pressure Die Casting

The die casting process is one of the oldest manufacturing processes dating back to 1838 when the first die-casting machine was invented. From then on, it has become a go-to metal casting process.

It involves converting a molten metal in a part using a mold cavity. This mold cavity is made from a durable metal to put the molten material into shape. It is almost the same as the injection molding process. The only difference is it uses a ferrous material.

In die-casting, the high-pressure type is heavily favored by the industry because it is precise and fast in creating parts made from zinc or aluminum. Aside from the material used, it also yields a more desirable appearance, weight, and dimensional tolerances.

Just like any other manufacturing process, high-pressure die-casting also comes with a different set of challenges. Here are some of them.

The Material

High-pressure die-casting applies only to metals including zinc, aluminum, copper, tin, lead, and its alloys. The properties of these metals have their requirements that should be observed to form the part without a glitch.

Aluminum, one of the most common materials used in die-casting has good mechanical properties, is lightweight, and high corrosion resistance. It should be used when the part requires high thermal and electrical conductivity.

The Temperature

One of the most critical factors in the die-casting process is the temperature. Here both the mold and the casting temperature have an impact on the final product.

In the casting process, as the temperature increases, the solubility of the gas in the material is also accelerated. This means that these gases will have a higher chance of precipitating during the casting process and affects their mechanical properties.

The mold temperature has a great influence on the mold's lifespan. Intense temperature changes will make it brittle and develop cracks. Meanwhile, when the mold temperature is too low, it causes shrinkage stress on the alloy and the part will be prone to cracks.

When the mold temperature gets too high, it can be good for the surface features of the casting but will make it prone to shrinkage depression.

The Defects

Some defects could happen during the manufacturing process. Here are some of these defects and how to fix them.

  • Cracks. Since the molds are repeatedly subjected to temperature, they will suffer from wear and tear affecting their surface. These minor deformations will cause minor cracks on the casting. To avoid this, the mold should be sufficiently heated and maintained within the operating temperature range to avoid cracks.
  • Fragmentation. Because the die-casting is truly an injection process, the mold may crack at its weakest point. When this happens, it can easily break. This crack will rapidly propagate and may lead to the fragmentation of the mold. For this reason, scratches on the mold should be polished. It should also possess high strength, toughness, and good plasticity.

The complexities in the die-casting process drive the die-casting industry. We have enumerated the factors that affect the outcome of the process. It is easy to overcome the challenges in creating the perfect product from a high-pressure die-casting process provided that you follow our advice here.

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